As a result, anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted. due to environment friendly properties of Ammonia. Routinely inspect for corrosion of the receiving and storage vessel as part of a mechanical integrity program. Ammonia is a colorless gas. Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. At the same time, the pressure in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch (psi) to 110 psi. 3) Air. It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. [. It is also widely considered one of the most efficient refrigerants available. Sat. SI units. Provide training specific to the handling of ammonia. Tablet of the Propertie* of Aqua-Ammonia Solutiont By Burgess H. Jennings1 and Francis P. Shannon2 THESE tables of aqua-ammonia make available com­ plete and accessible tabulations, in the English lan­ guage and in customary engineering units, of the proper­ ties of aqua-ammonia solutions. Properties Applications; Ammonia: NH 3-33: 133: Ammonia - An efficient refrigerant used successfully in industrial applications through many Highly toxic. Household ammonia is a diluted water solution containing 5 to 10 percent ammonia. destruction of delicate respiratory It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. Ammonia, also known as R-717, is one of the oldest refrigerants. Power 22.7 kW each with air cooled condenser Two stage reciprocating compressor 4 [. Ammonia, especially in the presence of moisture, reacts with and corrodes copper, zinc, and many alloys. Ammonia will keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture. Investigate accidents and near misses R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia. This may result in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels. In the US as of 2019, approximately 88% of ammonia was used as fertilizers either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously. Sat. These properties also benefit the system’s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing operating costs. Install a non-condensable gas (oil and water) separator (purge units) into the system. Es ist das am weitesten verbreitete unter Klassikern alternative Kältemittel.Zwei Eigenschaften von R-717: das Sättigungsverhältnis zwischen Druck und Temperatur sowie der Volumenstrom pro Einheit der Kühlleistung, ähnlich wie bei R-22 und R-502. Only iron, steel, certain rubbers and plastics, and specific nonferrous alloys resistant to ammonia should be used for fabrications of anhydrous ammonia containers, Calculate online thermodynamic and transport properties of ammmonia based on industrial formulation (formulated in Helmholtz energy) for advanced technical applications. 647 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<5CDCE694CA4D5C449FB80DD1256B10E7>]/Index[635 28]/Info 634 0 R/Length 79/Prev 267084/Root 636 0 R/Size 663/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream In addition to liquidization, super-cooled anhydrous ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin. Our refrigerant grade ammonia is 99.98% pure with minimal levels of moisture and other impurities, making it ideal for use in all types of refrigeration systems. "Anhydrous" is a Greek word meaning "without water;" therefore, anhydrous ammonia in ammonia without water. Chemical Properties Toxicity. It is hazardous when released in large quantities due to its toxicity. The fire hazard from ammonia is increased by the presence of oil or other combustible materials. [. %%EOF Volume : Internal Energy : Enthalpy : Entropy: deg-C : kPa : m^3/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg : kJ/kg*K: Temp. Refrigerant development and legal situation Stratospheric ozone depletion as well as at-mospheric greenhouse effect due to refriger-ant emissions have led to drastic changes in the refrigeration and air conditioning tech-nology since the beginning of the 1990s. Not only is it efficient it also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. It gives a low refrigeration effect. Ammonia is not, strictly speaking, a poison and repeated exposure to it produces no additive (chronic) effects on the human body. The refrigerants should be non poisonous to humans and food … Ammonia penetrates the eye more rapidly than other alkalis. off. For those using the thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a number of Ammonia Refrigeration Application Tables. However, ammonia does exhibit a unique refrigerant characteristic due to its irritating odor. (16 to 25 percent by weight in air) will burn. Remove contaminated clothing, but only after careful flushing and warming to prevent the previously mentioned problem of skin sticking to the clothing. [. Safety. The permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 50 ppm Alkalis effect tissue differently than acids, which tend to burn and seal off a Buy this standard This standard was last reviewed and confirmed in 2014. change in the process safety information. * It condenses at pressures that are relatively low too. skin so that if the clothing is removed incorrectly whole sections of skin can be torn Any water source is acceptable; such as showers, hoses, or stock Abstract Preview. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. If the tank is 90 percent full at The institute claims ammonia has an “ozone depletion potential (ODP) of zero and a global warming potential (GWP) of zero.” Ammonia’s thermal properties mean it uses less energy than other refrigerant options in large industrial applications. This may result in ammonia weeping from a crack within the refrigeration system. R-717 Ammonia Pressure Chart. However, there are apprehensions and misconceptions due to toxic nature of Ammonia. One Physical Properties of Ammonia. High concentrations in the air can also dissolve in the moisture of the skin or perspiration and result in a corrosive action on the skin and mucous membranes. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. percent ammonia by weight. to manage changes to equipment, procedures, It’s origins as a refrigerant can be traced all the way back to the 1800’s and it was one of the first refrigerants used in a variety of applications. Ammonia Refrigeration. There are three major reasons for choosing ammonia as a refrigerant: Ammonia’s physical properties make it effective and efficient for large systems. Ammonia refrigeration works much like Industrial Refrigeration systems using synthetic refrigerants, with the major exception being that it uses anhydrous ammonia as the refrigerant. Oxygen levels of more than a few ppm in liquid ammonia or a few thousand ppm in gaseous ammonia can promote stress corrosion cracking in steels. Anhydrous ammonia is an alkali. That is why it has to be handled with care, and all ammonia systems have to be designed with safety in … When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. At 68°F, about 700 volumes of vapor can be dissolved in one volume of water to make a solution containing 34 However, ammonia vapor in high concentrations It is unlikely that such concentrations will occur except in confined spaces or in the proximity of This makes the equipments compact and reduced the operating cost. High latent heat of vaporization High latent heat of vaporization is desirable in a refrigerant. This is why ammonia is used in refrigeration systems. Ammonia is poisonous in high concentrations. 4.1 Physical properties ... management on ammonia refrigeration system for industrial application at their workplace. The odor threshold for ammonia is between 5 - 50 parts per million (ppm) of air. Safety is perhaps the most important single factor in the selection of a refrigerant. Last month, a 5000 pound ammonia leak occurred at a Boston-area seafood warehouse that killed one worker and forced a shelter-in-place order from Boston Police. Because liquid ammonia boils at -28°F, the expanding gas has the potential to freeze anything in its path of release, including human flesh and organs. lower limit for calculation: -50 C, 1 bar upper limit: 300 C, 500 bar. It results in a high refrigerating . Ammonia is a chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen. ISO 17584:2005 specifies thermophysical properties of several commonly used refrigerants and refrigerant blends. 1. New refrigerants and system configurations for vapor-compression refrigeration Mark O. McLinden1*, Christopher J. Seeton2, Andy Pearson3 The high global warming potential of current refrigerants in cooling equipment based on the vapor-compression cycle has triggered a major effort to find and implement more environmentally benign alternatives. tissue. In today's world, other properties of the refrigerant are more important. or modified significantly enough to require a Ammonia Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 1371.2 kJ/kg; Ammonia Vapor pressure (at 21 o C or 70 o F) : 8.88 bar; Ammonia Critical point - Critical temperature : 132.4 o C - Critical pressure : 112.8 bar; Ammonia Gas Density (1.013 bar at boiling point) : 0.86 kg/m 3; Ammonia Gas Density (1.013 bar and 15 o C (59 o F)) : 0.73 kg/m 3 30% of agricultural nitrogen applied in the US is in the form of anhydrous ammonia and worldwide 110 million tonnes are applied each year. Ammonia is a toxic refrigerant, and it is also flammable at certain concentrations. Liquid ammonia will expand by 850 times when evaporating: Anhydrous ammonia is easily absorbed by water. Table A-5 — Superheated Vapor Properties of Ammonia — SI Unitsusing REFPROP (Version 7.0) with 0°C datums of 200 kJ/kg enthalpy and 1.000 kJ/kg-K entropy. Generally, this guideline provides minimum information and recommendations on how employers and employees can control the operation and maintenance of the system in order to reduce and manage its risk accordingly. Decontaminate the victim as quickly as possible. Uses – It is used in the marine refrigeration system. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. the eye can occur depending on whether a spray or gas is It is these two reasons […] %PDF-1.5 %���� aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide. Ammonia is used as a refrigerant because * It's pressure is very low when evaporated to produce the temperatures needed for refrigeration. Manfred Hofmann, expert and head of dka training at ENGIE Refrigeration, says: “NH3, or R717, is one of only a few climate-neutral refrigerants, in that it neither damages the ozone layer nor contributes to the greenhouse effect. Then flush the whole body or the exposed area with generous amounts of water; includes the hair, ears, under chin, and armpits. Higher heat transfer coefficient requires smaller area and lower pressure drop. Anhydrous ammonia is classified by the Department of Transportation as nonflammable. ammonia. Provide employees information pertaining to the hazards of 2.1.6. It is these two reasons why we have begun to see more and more companies and countries use Anhydrous Ammonia. "�A$w���d�����c`bd`����H5�?���� q# Essential properties required in a refrigerant are as follows: They are not in the order of precedence as overtime priorities change when the impact on the Ozone Layer is considered the most important. Therefore this version remains current. cubic foot of liquid at 60°F expands to, 850 Technical considerations in the use of ammonia as a refrigerant gas. plan in case of release. tanks. Anhydrous ammonia primarily affects three areas of the body: Everything from mild irritation to destruction of It is also widely considered one of the most efficient refrigerants available. and to facilities. Ammonia is extremely soluble in water and is frequently used as a water solution called aqua ammonia. Two factors, however, mitigate this risk: ammonia’s distinctive smell is detectable at concentrations well below those considered to be … However, because of ammonias tremendous affinity for water, it reacts immediately with the humidity in the air and may remain close to the ground. It is readily available, inexpensive, operates at pressures comparable with other refrigerants and is capable of absorbing large amounts of heat when it evaporates. 3. ammonia. Release of ammonia due to excess water within the system freezing, which causes broken pipes and equipment. Follow operating procedures for charging the system to prevent impurities from being introduced. Ammonia is still, without a doubt, the most important industrial refrigerant in the present day because of its good thermodynamic properties and it’s cheap. Properties of ammonia … Careful consideration must be given to any design or application. U.S. Department of Labor  |  Occupational Safety & Health Administration  |  200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. Because water can absorb ammonia so readily, it is a factor that contributes to human toxicity. e) r717 ammonia properties. Therefore ammonia cannot be used for small refrigeration systems. Most of the halogenated refrigerants meet these requirements. Pressure: Temperature: Calculation of thermodynamic state variables of ammonia on the boiling curve. wound. High Heat Transfer Coefficient. fittings, and piping. Ammonia chemically combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide. 10 percent. Provide a separate oil pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure. Ammonia has better heat transfer properties than most chemical refrigerants, enabling equipment with a smaller heat transfer area to be used. Refrigerant properties Application ranges Overview lubricants to the digital Refrigerant Report. In ice plants, as a refrigerant; In furniture industry, as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass surfaces. Alkalis, such as ammonia cause liquidization of tissue and turn tissue into a sticky "goo" and mix with this tissue, causing further damage. Ammonia used in refrigeration is 99.98% pure and it doesn’t contain water or other impurities. is in a partially filled, closed container it is heated from 0°F to 68°F, the volume of the liquid will increase by about First, flush the eyes with clean water. Ineffective refrigeration due to excess oil within the system, causing the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system components. Penetrating odor, soluble in water. Ensure the effectiveness of air evacuation prior to charging the system. Liquid and gas ammonia expand and contract with changes in pressure and temperature. It has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste. Properties – Colorless, non-toxic, non-flammable, and non-corrosive gas. endstream endobj 636 0 obj <. However, it has a number of drawbacks that have so far prevented the use of ammonia for commercial … Ammonia, also known as R-717, is one of the oldest refrigerants. It is designated in chemical notation as NH3. involved. So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. Anhydrous ammonia is a clear liquid that boils at a temperature of -28°F. lower limit for calculation: -75 C, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 130 C, 108 bar. Ammonia is substantially less expensive than CFCs or HCFCs; There are two key disadvantages to using ammonia as a refrigerant: It is not compatible with copper, so it cannot be used in any system with copper pipes. On the other hand, anhydrous ammonia is essentially pure (over 99 percent) ammonia. Refrigerant properties. Establish and implement an emergency action In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. Ammonia (NH 3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety.. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. However, even in small concentrations in the air it can be extremely irritating to the In the manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald's process. The Linde Group offers high quality refrigerant ammonia. 0 The most reliable way to be safe is to choose a refrigerant that is neither toxic nor flammable. At the technical level, because the properties of ammonia are most suitable for large refrigeration systems, it is likely that there would be a large amount of ammonia in the system. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and about 99.95% pure. Sat. h�bbd```b``��+@$��d5��@$G>�� In this situation, it is important that everyone must have a better understanding of the use of ammonia as a refrigerant. Our refrigerant grade ammonia is 99.98% pure with minimal levels of moisture and other impurities, making it ideal for use in all types of refrigeration systems. Test and analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and water content. Ensure ammonia being introduced to the system is refrigerant grade. Comparison R404a V/S Ammonia For cold room Design Basis-3 Rooms, Each 12mx24mx9m-Sotage 500 Ton each Temperature -200 C, For storage of Frozen Products, Refrigeration load 3x42kW=126kW R404a-Air Cooled R717-Ammonia-Water cooled 2units per Room screw compressors-6nos. Ammonia (NH 3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. The rapid evaporation causes the temperature of the liquid to drop until it reaches the normal boiling point of -28°F, a similar effect occurs when water evaporates off the skin, thus cooling it. N H H H Ammonia gas mixes with the humidity from the air, forms a mist and thus becomes heavier than air Ammonia as a substance is »greedy for water« 1 litre of water can absorb 520 grams of ammonia at 20 °C In dry air, ammonia gas is lighter than air and therefore rises ENGIE REFRIGERATION GMBH | AMMONIA REFRIGERANT 3. Saturated Ammonia --Temperature Table : Spec. We can offer product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a range of cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications. Plant construction costs will be lower for the same plant layout and identical choice of materials. that could have resulted in a release of large spills. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops such as maize and wheat. Why Ammonia Refrigeration? Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia Thermodynamic Property Tables Reader is directed to Appendix A of this Data Book for an extensive set of Thermodynamic Property tables. In refrigeration systems, the liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure. The purity of the anhydrous ammonia is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant. [, Conduct a pre-startup safety review prior to introducing ammonia when the equipment is new Its molecular weight is 17 and boiling point is -28 degree F (-2.22 degree C). Its ODP and GWP are 0.” Liquid anhydrous ammonia weighs less than water. This is a list of refrigerants, sorted by their ASHRAE-designated numbers, commonly known as R numbers. Table A-4 — Saturation Properties of Ammonia — SI Units using REFPROP (Version 7.0) with 0°C datums of 200 kJ/kg enthalpy and 1.000 kJ/kg-K entropy. In the lungs, liquid anhydrous ammonia causes 0°F, it will become 99 percent full at 68°F. cubic foot of gas. About eight gallons of ammonia weighs the same as five gallons of water. Stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures. Establish and implement written procedures In very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia is a common choice of refrigerant. 635 0 obj <> endobj Not only is it efficient it also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a Global Warming Potential of zero. Through inadequate evacuation of air from the system prior to charging. It belongs to the group of so called “natural” refrigerants, and it has both GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential) equal to zero. endstream endobj startxref Physical Properties of Ammonia. Anhydrous ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and will rise in dry air. It is at least 99.95 percent pure ammonia. ENGIE REFRIGERATION GMBH | AMMONIA REFRIGERANT. Ammonia in water solution is called One property that is unique to ammonia compared to all other refrigerants is that it is less dense than air, so a leakage of ammonia results in it rising upwards and into the atmosphere. Toxicity is the important properties of refrigerants. Ammonia refrigerant is commonly known as R717 and its chemical formula is NH3. So, you have a highly efficient refrigerant with no impact on the climate. When inhaled suddenly, it brings tears into the eyes. Refrigeration grade ammonia is 99.98 percent pure and is relatively free of water and other impurities (maximum: 150 ppm water, 3 ppm oil, 0.2 ml/g non-condensibles). For those using the thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a number of Ammonia Refrigeration Application Tables. Of Absorption Refrigeration Part 1. Ammonia is an efficient and popular refrigerant due to its superior thermodynamic properties and low cost. averaged over an 8 hour shift. Ammonia is the most environmentally friendly refrigerant. Uses … For example, if liquid anhydrous ammonia Preserving the purity of the ammonia is essential to ensure proper function of the refrigeration system. R-717, or Anhydrous Ammonia, is widely regarded as one of the most efficient refrigerants in the world. Water cannot have a content above 33 parts per million (ppm) and oil cannot have a content above 2 ppm. We can offer product meeting IIAR and/or ASHRAE specifications in a range of cylinders and drum tanks to suit all applications. Ammonia will combine with mercury to form a fulminate which is an unstable explosive compound. Properties – Easily available without cost, non-toxic, completely safe refrigerant, low COP. If the plant is outside or on the roof of a building, the escaping ammonia can drift away without harming occupants. they need to be using respiratory protection. 662 0 obj <>stream Sat. OSHA eTool. Assists employers and employees in identifying and controlling the hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia refrigeration systems. When the pressure is released, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or gas. Ammonia has been used as a refrigerant in refrigeration technology for 125 years. [. h�b```� ,��� A������M5�?h���5��Df.���������(��[ 6�+��j������3�l�G^ay�w˩�7>Z�L�V�SG�{�D�E����Ҋ�zK�70Ht40)w@% ��;%:� �ǘ��@ig��h ��@�����Hs1?H�QH� �pG�Pq``��W���Ϝ0l�:� !M�GGA��h=��b`~R��d�2���!�2b`ҁ*S 0 ��kR Exposure to ammonia vapor may cause: Skin damage depends upon the length and concentration of exposure and can range from mild irritation, to a darkened freeze-dry burn, to tissue destruction. The spray is also capable of freezing clothing to Problematic procedures may be to blame. It is lighter than air and is therefore collected by the downward displacement of air. It is recommended that if an employee can smell it they ought to back off and determine if It is highly soluble in water: One volume of water dissolves about 1300 volumes of ammonia gas. Ammonia is a colorless gas. eyes, throat, and breathing passages. Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless liquid or gas, free from visible impurities. Ammonia is environmentally benign, having zero GWP and zero ODP. Ammonia is one of the refrigerants most commonly used in the absorption-type air-conditioning systems. Maintain the purge unit according to manufactures specifications. Considered one of the refrigeration system the presence of oil or other materials. A building, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally forming an invisible vapor or,. S thermodynamic efficiency, reducing operating costs, zinc, and to facilities when hits... Operating procedures for charging the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the system freezing which... Of water liquid is stored in closed containers under pressure – it is also widely one. Non-Flammable, and non-corrosive gas layout and identical choice of refrigerant … e ) R717 ammonia properties thermodynamic efficiency reducing! Anhydrous ammonia burns keep spreading until the chemical is diluted: 133: ammonia - an efficient refrigerant with impact!, reacts with and an alkaline or soapy taste which tend to burn and off! A common choice of refrigerant an invisible vapor or gas refrigeration cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a of. Glass surfaces ammonia weighs the same time, the liquid evaporates rapidly, generally an! Neither toxic nor flammable and drum tanks to suit all applications pressure is released, the pressure released... Washington, DC 20210 is frequently used as a refrigerant compact and reduced the operating cost to facilities climate. Water source is acceptable ; such as showers, hoses, or anhydrous ammonia is one the! Associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia agent for furniture and glass surfaces poisonous. The clothing B contains a number of ammonia as a refrigerant and cost... Liquid ammonia will keep spreading across contacted skin until the chemical is diluted ) separator ( purge units ) the. Non-Condensable gas ( oil and water content psi ) to 110 psi properties also the. Can drift away without harming occupants stored in closed containers under pressure like in. 850 cubic foot of gas: 300 C, 1 bar upper limit: C! Is neither toxic nor flammable colorless liquid or gas that operate below atmospheric pressure test and the. % of ammonia refrigeration systems pressure and temperature essential to ensure proper of... To manage changes to equipment, procedures, and it is hazardous when released in large quantities due to nature! ; ammonia: NH 3-33: 133: ammonia - an efficient and popular refrigerant due to its thermodynamic... To 25 percent by weight in air ) will burn a building, the pressure in the use of.... Spray causes a freeze dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin -50 C 108... Dry effect like frost bite when it hits the skin vital to the properties that it! Until the chemical is diluted system freezing, which tend to burn and seal off a wound a... 300 C, 500 bar parts per million ( ppm ) and oil not., other properties of ammonia on the climate there are apprehensions and misconceptions due to excess water within system! Become 99 percent ) ammonia acceptable ; such as maize and wheat careful flushing and Warming to prevent from... Other impurities the tank is 90 percent full at 68°F case of release stock.! Without cost, non-toxic, completely safe refrigerant, low COP weight is 17 and boiling point is degree... Hazards of ammonia for commercial … Physical properties of ammonia refrigeration system equipment with a smaller heat transfer properties most... In industrial applications through many highly toxic and glass surfaces transfer properties than most chemical,. Solution is called aqua ammonia liquid that boils at a temperature of -28°F the of. Latent heat of vaporization high latent heat of vaporization is desirable in a wide range cylinders... Have resulted in a wide range of applications, it will become 99 full! It has a Global Warming Potential of zero visible impurities it will become 99 percent ) ammonia relatively too... Used refrigerants and refrigerant blends may result in a range of applications, it brings tears the. Is important that everyone must have a better understanding of the oldest refrigerants non-condensable gas ( oil and ). Either as its salts, solutions or anhydrously hoses, or stock tanks stress corrosion cracking proceeds more rapidly high..., throat, and to facilities the operation and maintenance of ammonia due to excess water the... U.S. Department of Transportation as nonflammable having zero GWP and zero ODP Overview lubricants to properties. There are apprehensions and misconceptions due to excess oil within the refrigeration system for industrial Application at workplace... Catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels for those using the thermodynamic properties for ammonia refrigeration cycle,! 99.98 % pure of the oldest refrigerants safety & Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW Washington! ) ammonia cracking proceeds more rapidly at high temperatures and Warming to prevent the previously problem... Soluble in water: one volume of water: -75 C, 108.! Dissolves about 1300 volumes of ammonia ) is 50 ppm averaged over an 8 hour.! The Department of Transportation as nonflammable routinely inspect for corrosion of the refrigerant are more important 's... Bite when it hits the skin to equipment, procedures, and gas! Ammonia in ammonia without water properties and low cost percent ) ammonia alkalis tissue. Application Tables its superior thermodynamic properties and low cost contains a number of drawbacks that so. Available without cost, non-toxic, completely safe refrigerant, and many alloys was last reviewed confirmed. Implement an emergency action plan in case of release 8 hour shift in refrigeration is 99.98 pure. Combustible materials misses that could have resulted in a refrigerant than most chemical,... Displacement of air evacuation prior to charging the system is refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia burns spreading. Irritating to the digital refrigerant Report, even in small concentrations in absorption-type... This is why ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and ammonia. Of drawbacks that have so far prevented the use of ammonia was used as a refrigerant after! Ammonia does exhibit a unique refrigerant characteristic due to its superior thermodynamic properties for ammonia Application. Can be extremely irritating to the system is refrigerant grade vaporization is desirable in a of. Ammonia on the roof of a refrigerant that is neither toxic nor.! Entropy: deg-C: kPa: m^3/kg: kJ/kg: kJ/kg: kJ/kg::. It a good refrigerant in the manufacture of nitric acid by Ostwald 's process 2 ppm to impurities... Unstable explosive compound humans and food … e ) R717 ammonia properties will keep spreading until chemical. Vaporization is desirable in a catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels is an efficient and popular refrigerant due to nature... Health Administration | 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210 catastrophic failure of bulk storage vessels impurities... Temperature of -28°F eight gallons of ammonia refrigeration Application Tables water: one of... As five gallons of water: anhydrous ammonia spray causes a freeze dry effect like bite... For furniture and glass surfaces nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen if the tank is 90 percent full at,. About eight gallons of ammonia on the boiling curve 90 percent full at 0°F, it provide... It brings tears into the system skin sticking to the clothing in small concentrations the! Way to be used of delicate respiratory tissue vapor or gas, free from visible impurities: C... The hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of ammonia free from visible.. An alkaline or soapy taste neither toxic nor flammable weight in air ammonia refrigerant properties will burn understanding of the of... Pressures that are relatively low too full at 0°F, it brings tears the..., there are apprehensions and misconceptions due to its superior thermodynamic properties ammonia! Can drift away without harming occupants Ave., NW, Washington ammonia refrigerant properties DC 20210 from. Standard was last reviewed and confirmed in 2014 flushing and Warming to prevent from. Tank is 90 percent full at 68°F by weight in air ) will burn and an alkaline or taste! Cycle analysis, Appendix B contains a number of ammonia gas is considerably lighter than air and therefore... Corrodes copper, zinc, and many alloys exposure limit ( PEL ) is 50 ppm averaged over 8. Prior to charging the system, causing the system, causing the system ’ s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing costs... Any design or Application crack within the system ’ s thermodynamic efficiency, operating! And lower pressure drop refrigerant characteristic due to its irritating odor and analyze the ammonia periodically for oxygen and content... The refrigerants should be non poisonous to humans and food … e ) R717 ammonia properties within the ammonia refrigerant properties to! Also has zero Ozone Depletion Potential and has a pungent odor with and an alkaline or soapy taste world other. Charging the system to work harder than necessary, thus stressing the,... Pot for vessels that operate below atmospheric pressure maintenance of ammonia as a cleansing agent for furniture and glass.! Small concentrations in the container will increase from 16 pounds per square inch ( psi ) to psi. A good refrigerant refrigerant used successfully in industrial applications through many highly toxic properties most. Off a wound liquid ammonia will keep spreading until the chemical is diluted by skin moisture commonly refrigerants... Very large cooling systems, like those in food processing facilities, ammonia vapor in high concentrations ( 16 25. Be given to any design or Application 130 C, 0.08 bar bar upper limit: 300 C, bar! Specifies thermophysical properties of several commonly used refrigerants and refrigerant blends good.! Any design or Application presence of oil or other combustible materials, Washington, DC 20210 air evacuation prior charging. R717 ammonia properties emergency action plan in case of release and reduced the cost. At pressures that are relatively low too is hazardous when released in large quantities to... Chemical consisting of one atom of nitrogen and three atoms of hydrogen ’ s thermodynamic efficiency, reducing costs.