/F1 9 0 R /F2 10 0 R>> A Hydrocarbon backbone being a long chain of linked carbon and hydrogen atoms, possible due to the tetravalent nature of carbon.A few examples of a hydrocarbon backbone polymer are polypropylene, polybutylene, polystyrene. 0000004744 00000 n unusual properties of high polymers are developed, it will be convenient to consider the chemical and structural aspects of polymers at three different levels: 1) The chemical structure (atomic composition) of the monomer (primary structure) 2) The single polymer chain (secondary level) 3) Aggregation of polymer chains (tertiary structure) Polymers are substances containing a large number of structural units joined by the same type of linkage. Glassy polymers are widely used as structural materials in aerospace vehicles, airplanes, automobiles, biomedical devices, and so on. The subjects are logically combined because understanding how structure a ects properties, as measured in characterization, is a key element of polymer materials science and engineering. Networked polymers are complex polymers that are heavily linked to form a complex network of three-dimensional linkages. Most of the polymers around us are made up of a hydrocarbon backbone. 0000000016 00000 n 0000007635 00000 n For example, Nylon, which contains nitrogen atoms in the repeated unit backbone. This means that The subject of polymer structure and characterization is typically a second course in polymer science. xref Polymers with conjugated π-electron (i. e. system have C=C conjugated bonds) backbones display unusual electronic properties such as low energy optical transition, low ionization potentials, and high electron affinities. /Contents 4 0 R The spectrum of applications of polymers is immense. Polymers: Lecture 2 Prepared by Dr Arunima Nayak and Dr Brij Bhushan Classification of Polymers 1. The general structure of these polymers is shown in Fig. endstream endobj 49 0 obj<. /XObject<< The length of the side chain influences the packing of these polymer chains in the melt or glassy state. As the side chain becomes longer, the average interchain distance increases.10 This increased spacing between chain The first chapter is devoted to this broad objective. << Polymers are very large and very complicated systems; their character­ ization has to begin with the chemical composition, configuration, and con­ formation of the individual molecule. information about structure or properties of polymers. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYMERS The structure of polymers is hierarchical, and both the monomer organization and larger-scale structure affect the observable properties, such as phase transitions, strength, solubility, and elasticity. %%EOF Low M High M • Polymers can have various lengths depending on the number of repeat units. ������1_��#ڝ,���GޤUi$c} Examples: polyethylene, PVC, nylon. >> Polymers and Polymerizations—Architecture 12 The number of complementary reactive sites and geometry of monomer determine The molecular connectivity of polymer−metal−organic framework (polyMOF) hybrid materials was investigated using density functional theory calculations and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. £ù`†?ÉÿCüeÿãøó×ýOTÇ_ûÿ¨2þüÅÿkâÏ_ÿÿ¤þ1þO+ óVþQþÏ+àéÿ¢8þüùGú¿,Š¼ÿ«‚øóçÏ?ÜÿuqÿoŠà÷ÿ¶ þüùÇý¿ˆ?þ±ÿïàϟ?ÿðÿ£áϟ?ÿÿ½ñÏõÿÔþüsý?÷ÀŸ?þüù'ûé‚?þüùóÏùÿ:-þüùóçϟ?ÿÄÿoSáϟ?þüùóçϟ?þÉÿßk÷ÿãþüùóoõÿ`™ÃS <]>> These identical structures, we understand as a unit made up of two or more molecules, join together to form a long chain. specific chemical structures. trailer 0000004668 00000 n 0000000729 00000 n Polymers. 0000001643 00000 n 0 Synthetic polymers are characterized by defined structures with flexibility of modification in terms of functionality and degradability and response to environmental fluctuation (chemical and biological response to stimuli), mechanical strength [29]. CHEM 379 – W20 Physical Properties of Polymers 6-1 6. Some natural polymers are composed of one kind of monomer. Lesson 5: Structure and Applications of Metals; Lesson 6: Types and Applications of Metal Alloys; Lesson 7: Structure and Applications of Ceramics; Lesson 8: Structure and Applications of Polymers. Cold-drawing • When a polymer is stretched a ‘neck’ forms. 11 0 obj Crystalline polymers • Areas in polymer where chains packed in regular way. 0000003206 00000 n 0000001100 00000 n /MediaBox[0 0 842 595] 15. 0000002800 00000 n 0000004116 00000 n Polymer Structure. 8 0 obj <> stream There may be extensive van der Waals and hydrogen bonding between the chains. 0000188681 00000 n For each Engineering polymers include natural materials such as rubber and synthetic materials such as plastics and elastomers. Structure features of polymers Each bond angle between three adjacent C atoms is near 109.5º and the angle can be rotated freely in space. • Linear polymers have monomeric units joined end to end in single chains. cleavage of covalent bonds between them and bio erodible polymers bring about erosion of the polymer due to dissolution of linking chains without bringing about any change in chemical structure of the molecule [2]. A primary reason that polymer properties are different is because the chemical compositions of metals, polymers and ceramics are totally different. startxref /Im1 6 0 R>> Polymers are very useful materials because their structures can be altered and tailored to produce materials 1) with a range of mechanical properties 2) in a wide spectrum of colors and 3) with different transparent properties. endobj These polymers have a similar structure to the polyamides, which have the urethane (carbamate) group as part of the polymer backbone. 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